Wilpttu National park is among the oldest and most important of protected areas in Sri Lanka. It also contains a number of important cultural sites.
The sanctuary lies inland from the coast and is entirely within Northern Province. It is contiguous with the park, the intervening boundary being marked by the Moderagam Aru.
The main topographical feature in this park is the concentration of “villus” or “lakes” within it. The striking feature, though confined to certain sector of the park, is copper red, loamy soils extremely varied. The western sector of the park with deeply forested areas and thorny bushes in reminiscent of Yala National Park in the southern Sri Lanka. Characterized by inter monsoon rains in March and April an extensive drought from May until early September and a major rainy season (Northern Monsoon) from September until December. Mean annual temperature is 27.2 ° C and total annual precipitations approximately 1000mm based on long term records.
Mammalian diversity and ecological densities are highest in such ecotomes as the interfaces betweenrest, scrub and grasslands converge in the west and the “villus” and drainage systems in the center of the park. A total of 31of mammals have been recorded but additional species of Rodentia and Chiropotera unbodoubtedly present. Among the most conspicuous reptiles are common.